Furthermore, that which today has popularly become known as "Magic" or "Magick" is actually a development of that aspect of the Rosicrucian tradition known as "Theurgy. Prior to the founding of the Inner Order behind the Golden Dawn, Theurgy had never before been the primary focus of the Rosicrucian spiritual tradition, but rather Alchemy instead. Indeed, the Rosicrucian tradition itself grew out of the Alchemical tradition. The true place of Theurgy within the Rosicrucian tradition has always been as a complementary discipline to Alchemy. Alchemy was a part of the curriculum studied by the members of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn; but, excepted some very concise definitions given in the "Knowledge Lectures" about several terms used in Alchemy, very little was really taught about Alchemy in the Outer Order.
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Furthermore, that which today has popularly become known as "Magic" or "Magick" is actually a development of that aspect of the Rosicrucian tradition known as "Theurgy. Prior to the founding of the Inner Order behind the Golden Dawn, Theurgy had never before been the primary focus of the Rosicrucian spiritual tradition, but rather Alchemy instead.
Indeed, the Rosicrucian tradition itself grew out of the Alchemical tradition. The true place of Theurgy within the Rosicrucian tradition has always been as a complementary discipline to Alchemy. Alchemy was a part of the curriculum studied by the members of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn; but, excepted some very concise definitions given in the "Knowledge Lectures" about several terms used in Alchemy, very little was really taught about Alchemy in the Outer Order.
In the Second Order of R. The only document concerning practical Alchemy was a Z. This Z. Now, in the curriculum studied by members of the old Golden Dawn, we must also include all the books edited by Wynn Westcott in his Collectanea Hermetica because it was considered in fact as the true curriculum of study for all the dedicated members of the Outer Order. Indeed, this collection of books constituted very valuable sources of information concerning the rituals of the Outer Order.
Among the treatises published in the Collectanea Hermetica, there were several on Alchemy; these were the following :. Florence Farr. The notes and commentaries of Frater S. We must not forget also that members of the Golden Dawn could consult the famous "Westcott Hermetic Library" founded in for the convenience of their esoteric research.
This Hermetic Library contained many very rare books on Alchemy in Latin, in German, in French and in English of which I give here the complete list :. Hunter from a German Mss" Frankfort, Price Oxford, Wynn Westcott - London, As this list demonstrates, Dr.
Westcott was deeply interested in Alchemy; indeed, the examination of his Map of the Heavens shows several Egyptian symbolical degrees connected with alchemy and medicine.
The members of the Order could also read with profit all the articles written by the scholar Arthur E. Waite Frater Sacramentum Regis about alchemy, for instance :. All theses articles were edited once again by R. Gilbert in his book "Hermetic Papers of A. Moreover, Waite wrote several interesting studies about alchemy, such as :.
Felkin, Dr. Bullock, Allan Bennett and Julian Baker. Among them, we know that Westcott, Ayton, Felkin, Bennett and Baker could practise alchemy because they had the necessary knowledge on chemistry due to their professions they were chemists or phycisians. Was there really a secret alchemical tradition inside the Golden Dawn and does this secret tradition still survive to day?
Alchemical tradition? Curiously, the answer to this question is connected with the mysteries of the Order's origins. According to the research of A. My own historical research on this subject validates their conclusions; despite Westcott's claims about the so-called Woodford's Cypher Mss transmission, he probably received these manuscripts from Mrs. Alexandrina MacKenzie after the death of her husband Mrs.
MacKenzie was indeed among the first initiates received into the Golden Dawn under the significant motto Cryptonyma. Frederick Hockley seems to have been the main source of alchemical knowledge transmitted to the first members of the Golden Dawn. Among the thousands books he possessed in his private library, there were a lot of old alchemical treatises; but his practical knowledge about Alchemy certainly came from Sigismund Bacstrom. It is well-known that Hockley possessed the alchemical diary and the certificate of admission of Dr.
Hockley made several copies of this document under the title A Journal of a Rosicrucian Philosopher, which he published in the S. Percy Bullock who was one of the first Golden Dawn's members bought a copy of this document after Hockley's death and showed it to A.
It is highly significant that Bullock was more interested by the alchemical process of the Philosophers' Stone described in the Bacstrom diary than by his Rosicrucian Certificate; but Waite was more interested, as a historian, by the certificate. Indeed, this certificate proves that a genuine Rosicrucian transmission still existed at the end of 18th century in a French dominion in the island of Mauritius.
It is interesting to note that Dr. Bacstrom had also several pupils for instance, a certain Dr. Ford when he was living in the London district of Mary-le-Bone toward Curiously, it was also at Mary-le-Bone that Francis Barrett was living at the same time.
Towards , he founded an Academy of Magic at Mary-le-Bone composed of no more than 12 pupils. Hockley knew Barrett through his friend, John Denley who was a bookseller specialized in occult books Hockley worked for Denley and was involved in copying many occult manuscripts for sale ; according to Hockley, Denley gave much information to Barrett for his book, The Magus.
Lytton's Rosicrucian novel is quite autobiographical; for instance, when Glyndon asks Zanoni his Rosicrucian Master why he wanted to teach him the mysteries of Alchemy, Zanoni answered that he knew that one of Glyndon's ancestors belonged to the Fraternity, and therefore, according to the rules of the brotherhood, it was his duty to instruct him. In fact, this story is that of Lord Bulwer-Lytton himself, because one of his ancestors, John Bulwer, was an alchemist in the Sixteen Century and allegedly belonged to the Rosy Cross Fellowship Now, to come back to Dr.
Bacstrom, we are informed through a letter Hockley addressed to Irwin, that Bacstrom pursued the Great Work until the end of his life, but died very poor.
So, probably, he did not succeed in making the Philosopher's Stone according to the instructions that he received from the Earl Louis de Chazal and that he transcribed in his Essay on Alchemy reprinted under the title of Bacstrom's Alchemical Anthology by Kessinger Publishing Company. It is to be noted that the alchemical way followed by de Chazal and Bacstrom was an Antimony Way. A quite valuable information about Bacstrom's process is given by the famous French alchemist Fulcanelli in his book Les Demeures Philosophales.
Fulcanelli wrote that this process was not really Alchemy but "Archimie", i. Fulcanelli gave a strange information about Bacstrom and Hockley : he wrote that "Among the archimists having used gold for increasing it, with the help of successful formulae, we shall quote Yardley, an English inventor of a process transmitted to Mr.
Garden, a London glover, in , then communicated by Mr. Hockley to Dr. Sigismund Bacstrom who was affiliated to the Hermetic society founded by the Adept de Chazal, who was living in the Mauritian island in the Indian ocean, during the French Revolution.
This process was the subject of a Bacstrom's letter to Mr. Sand, in So, if Fulcanelli's information is correct, Hockley transmitted also an alchemical process to Bacstrom. Therefore, it is not impossible that Hockley was also a practicing alchemist. In any case, if Bacstrom died very poor, this was not the case for Hockley. Of course, Hockley was an accountant and quite wealthy, but it is not impossible that he obtained a part of his fortune through his alchemical works.
If he did not obtain the true Philosopher's Stone he died very ill at the age of 77 , he could have succeeded in making gold by a particular Archemical process. It seems that Bacstrom received only the communication of a particular alchemical process from the Earl of Chazal, but not the true Philosopher's Stone. By the first he acquired what he possessed and by the second, he had preserved his health to the age of According to the documents which are in my possession, this fraternity was founded in in Germany and was reorganized in and under the name of the Masonic Order of the Gold und Rosenkreuz Orden.
In fact, Dr. The Hermetic Tradition survived mainly through the Masonic French Illuminist Lodges during the 18th century and through the "Egyptian Free-Masonry" during the 19th century. Indeed, Egyptian Freemasonry which was founded by Cagliostro was prominent in the development of Alchemy in the 19th century. For instance, we know that Fulcanelli was in relationship with De Lesseps family involved with the Suez Canal building in Egypt. Moreover, we know than Fulcanelli was a close friend of Dujols, a Paris bookseller who was deeply involved in the study of Alchemy and Hermeticism.
It is also important to underline that certain rituals of the high degrees of the Egyptian Masonic Rite of Memphis are very similar to those of the Golden Dawn for instance, the names of the officers are the same.
In any case, it could explain why Hockley and MacKenzie were so fascinated by Cagliostro, founder of Egyptian Masonry, and why they considered him as their chief Spirit in the Brotherhood of Fratres Lucis which they founded together in England. All these German fraternities were deeply involved with the practice of alchemy. My historical researches into these topics proved that many members belonging to the Asiatic Brethren or Fratres Lucis became members of a German masonic lodge called L'Aurore Naissante or "the Nascent Dawn" founded in Frankfurt-on-Main in It is true that Bulwer-Lytton went to Germany on a long visit during the years his novel "Zanoni" was first published in , so he could have been initiated in the lodge of the Nascent Dawn which still existed at the time.
Fernand Rozier , who became later a friend of the famous Papus. I have seen the secret fire produced, I have seen how two metallic sperms are formed, the white which resembles mercury, and the red which is a viscous oil resembling molten sulphur. I know what can be done with gold, but believe me when I say that I will never do it.
Alexander Ayton, the alchemist of the Golden Dawn, told W. Indeed, according to the tradition of F. An internal document about the Order history, Legenda of F. Indeed, the fraternity was created in after the persecutions of Knights Templar by Philippe le Bel, King of France. Several Knights Templar escaped to England, then to Scotland.
Anyway, Mathers could not forget that he was from Scottish lineage and that the MacGregor's clan originated from the Argylle County, just near Mull island where the French Knights Templar took refuge. After the schism, it seems that a great part of the Alchemical Golden Dawn tradition survived both inside the Stella Matutina and the Alpha Omega. It seems that several spiritual alchemical practices were taught to Dr. The famous Z. By the way, it must be underlined that the Rituals of R.
This date is very interesting, because it is in accordance with a solar cycle of years. Now to come back to the Alchemical tradition of the Stella Matutina, it seems to be well preserved in New-Zealand, where Dr. Felkin went to live. However, he wrote that the real practice of alchemy was revealed to advanced members of the Inner Order only. It was also the case in the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha Omega where practical alchemy was revealed only to Adepti Exempti.
Jean Pascal Ruggiu
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Rosicrucian Alchemy And The Golden Dawn
The initiation of Crowley into the grade of Adeptus Minor remains very doubtful: although he always claimed that Mathers had initiated him into this grade in Paris in January , many indices seem to prove the opposite. Firstly, Crowley himself was not certain about the exact date of his initiation. He wrote in his periodical The Equinox that he had been "allowed into the glory of Tiphareth" i. Isis-Urania Temple, he wrote the date of January 23, However, the first of the Minute Books of the Ahathoor Temple establishes formally that at the time of his only and single official visit in Paris, July 1, , Crowley was yet only Philosophus and that he was a visiting member of the Isis-Urania Temple in London; contrary to Allan Bennett, for example, he had not been elected honorary member of the Ahathoor Temple. Consequently, normally, he could not receive the grade of Adeptus Minor in Paris, since he was not a member of the Ahathoor Temple.
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