Carlos Henrique Marchiori 1. Hymenoptera Parasitica represent the richest group of Hymenoptera and insect species develop as parasitoids of many insects, playing an important role in regulating pest populations and also phytophage insects, as they can lay their eggs on or directly within their host which is always dead due to the development of the larva that feeds on it. The large number of Hymenoptera Parasitica combined with their ability to respond to the density of the populations of its hosts makes them essential to maintain ecological balance and a force that contributes to the diversity of other organisms. The objective of this bibliographic study and present the characteristics of Hymenoptera Parasitic Insecta: Hymenoptera. Keywords: insetics, parasitoids, biocontrol, natural enemy, Brazil.
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Synonyms and other taxonomic changes. Artificial grouping; traditionally includes all the taxa other than those included in "Symphyta" and Aculeata. Tree of Life and some other taxonomies group the Parasitic and Aculeata under "Apocrita".
Family Ceraphronidae. Family Diapriidae. Family Heloridae. Family Megaspilidae. Family Pelecinidae - Pelecinids. Family Platygastridae. Family Proctotrupidae - Proctotrupids. Family Roproniidae. Family Stephanidae - Stephanid Wasps. Family Trigonalidae. Family Vanhorniidae. Superfamily Chalcidoidea - Chalcid Wasps. Family Agaonidae - Fig wasps. Family Aphelinidae.
Family Chalcididae - Chalcid Wasps. Family Encyrtidae - Encyrtids. Family Eucharitidae. Family Eulophidae. Family Eupelmidae. Family Eurytomidae. Family Leucospidae. Family Mymaridae. Family Ormyridae. Family Perilampidae. Family Pteromalidae - Pteromalids. Family Torymidae. Family Trichogrammatidae. Superfamily Cynipoidea. Family Cynipidae - Gall Wasps. Family Figitidae. Family Ibaliidae - Ibaliid Wasps. Superfamily Evanioidea - Aulacids, Ensigns, and Gasteruptiids. Family Aulacidae.
Family Evaniidae - Ensign Wasps. Family Gasteruptiidae - Gasteruptiid. Superfamily Ichneumonoidea - Braconids and Ichneumons. Family Braconidae - Braconid Wasps. Family Ichneumonidae - Ichneumon Wasps. Wasps in the informal group Parasitica share in common the general life cycle characteristic known as parasitoidism.
A parasitoid is an organism that kills its host after having fed on it. As a group, the Parasitica run the gamut of a remarkable diversity of life cycle characteristics.
The idiobionts develop relatively quickly, usually killing the hosts at a relatively earlier stage of host development than the koinobionts. Koinobiont parasitoids undergo a quiescent period during the egg or larval stage, allowing the host to develop to a later and usually larger stage of development before killing it. Ectoparasitoid adult females deposit the egg or eggs outside the body of the host, while endoparasitoid females inject the egg or eggs into the host's body.
Most endoparasitoids are also koinobionts - koinobiont endoparasitoids. Most ectoparasitoids are also idiobionts - idiobiont ectoparasitoids. Egg-larval parasitoids are those in which the female parasitoid deposits her egg in the egg stage of the host, and the parasitoid completes its larval development in the host larva, killing it at that stage.
In larval parasitoids , the egg is deposited on, near, or in the host larva , and completes its development there, killing the host larva. There also may be egg-pupal, larval-pupal , and pupal parasitoids. Some parasitoids lay only one egg per host solitary parasitoids while others lay several eggs per host gregarious parasitoids.
In polyembryonic parasitoids one egg develops into many parasitoid larvae. Hyperparasitoids are those that attack another parasitoid developing in the primary host. Superparasitism is when two parasitoid larvae of the same species parasitize the same host. Multiparasitism occurs when parasitoids of more than 1 species develop in the same host; of course there may also be competition to the death in both of these cases.
And then there are parasitoid wasps that attack adult insects and spiders. The fun never ends. Two recently described species of purported barklouse parasites represent another superfamily Mymarommatoidea not formally recorded before in NA 1. NB: There are parasitic wasps in all major lineages of Aculeata, incl. Some parasitic wasp cocoons are scattered on hosts' pages throughout the guide and grouped together here. Parasitic wasps -- a simple guide.
Parasitica In Catalan, excellently illustrated. Survey of parasitic Hymenoptera on Macrolepidoptera. Missouri Botanical Gardens. Ascher , ceiseman , v belov Last updated 21 August, - pm. Clickable Guide. Remarks Two recently described species of purported barklouse parasites represent another superfamily Mymarommatoidea not formally recorded before in NA 1 NB: There are parasitic wasps in all major lineages of Aculeata, incl.
Some parasitic wasp cocoons are scattered on hosts' pages throughout the guide and grouped together here Internet References Parasitic wasps -- a simple guide Parasitica In Catalan, excellently illustrated Survey of parasitic Hymenoptera on Macrolepidoptera Missouri Botanical Gardens Works Cited 1. Huber, G. Gibson, L. Bauer, H. Liu, M. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 17 2 : Bugguide is hosted by: Printer Friendly Version.
Parasitica - (all Apocrita except for the Aculeata)
Almost everybody could explain you more or less accurately what both parasites and predators are. But could everybody say you what a parasitoid is? Animals and especially insects set up a lot of different symbiotic relationships , but often we find organisms whose relationship is somewhere between one and another this is not a matter not of black or white! In the case of parasitoid insects, we talk about organisms that establish a symbiotic relationship with traits of both predator-prey relationships and a parasitic ones. Read this article to find out what parasitoid insects are, which is their origin and which kind of parasitoid insects exist.
"Parasitica" (parasitic Apocrita)
A review of the genera and species of Hymenoptera Parasitica and Chrysidoidea reported so far from Reunion Island is provided with host information. Data presented here is based on a review of the existing literature by the authors. This review records a total of species. Furthermore, they play an important role in the regulation of insect pests and many of them are used in biological control programs all over the world.