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This ritual is held routinely every year at mid-period between the postharvest of agricultural crops and field preparations for the next planting period. In this ritual, the trees used are in local language called "pare", "jita", "nio", "peri", and "laka", and the livestocks are "manu" and "rongo". However, before the ritual was performed other trees were used in the framework to prepare later ritual, i. The roles of trees and livestocks in the "Djoka Dju" ritual were discussed. Availability : Herbarium Bogoriense Library Email: herbogor indo. Parameters observed were microbe contamination, moisture content and volatile oil.

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This ritual is held routinely every year at mid-period between the postharvest of agricultural crops and field preparations for the next planting period. In this ritual, the trees used are in local language called "pare", "jita", "nio", "peri", and "laka", and the livestocks are "manu" and "rongo". However, before the ritual was performed other trees were used in the framework to prepare later ritual, i.

The roles of trees and livestocks in the "Djoka Dju" ritual were discussed. Availability : Herbarium Bogoriense Library Email: herbogor indo. Parameters observed were microbe contamination, moisture content and volatile oil.

The results showed that gamma irradiation with a dosage of up to 10 kGy was able to suppress the number of microbes from contaminated medicinal plants. The dosage used did not alter the value of the moisture content and volatile oil. The storage for 3 and 6 months as well as control were also analyzed.

A few of them are Acorus calamus, Calotropis procera, Clitoria ternatea, Commiphora mukul, Nigela sativa, Picrorhiza kurrooa and Zingiber zerumbet. Cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, nickel, phosphorus, lead and zinc were some of the elements which play various roles in cardiovascular affections. An effort was made to correlate the role of these elements in cardiac diseases. Zingiber spectabile, Zingiber officinale and Alpinia galanga were extracted by steam distillation.

The GC analyses revealed that the essential oil components for the three species were mainly similar for the low boiling components, such as x-pinene, limonene and structurally related compounds.

However, the amounts of each component differed significantly between species. These included alkaloid piperine from Achasma megalocheilos and Alpinia purpurata, sesquiterpene zerumbone from Zingiber ottensii and Zingiber zerumbet, germacrone from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Curcuma phaeocaulis, diterpene labda 8 17 , diene, dial2 from Hornstedtia scyphifera and Zingiber spectabilis, labdane butenolides coronarin C, and 14 - isocoronarin D from Hedychium coronarium and 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate3 from Alpinia conchigera and Alpinia galanga.

Isolation and identification of these compounds were discussed. The volatile fraction of some of the plants was isolated and the major components were characterized by gas chromatography and spectroscopic methods.

The fungicidal, bactericidal and insecticidal activities of some of the extracts and their abilities to inhibit seed germination were studied. It has been administered extensively to treat many ailments including various malignancies.

In this study, several Zingiberaceae species commonly found as ingredients in traditional medicine were screened for anti-tumour promoter activity. The Zingiberaceae rhizomes were extracted using three different solvents, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol, successively.

In earlier studies, it was recognised that the inhibition of enhanced phospholipid metabolism and EBV-EA activation induced by tumour promoters in vitro correlated well with their anti-tumour promoting effects in vivo. Seven Zingiberaceae rhizomes were found to demonstrate anti-tumour promoter activity.

They were, Curcuma domestica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiber zerumbet, Zingiber officinale, Zingiber officinale red variety and Kaempferia galanga. Among these seven gingers, Curcuma domestica, Zingiber cassumunar and Zingiber zerumbet exhibited very high activity.

Zingiber officinale, Zingiber officinale red variety and Curcuma xanthorrhiza possessed moderate activity while Kaempferia galanga demonstrated partial activity. These naturally occurring anti-tumour promoter compounds in Zingiberaceae could contribute to the development of cancer prevention methods at the tumour promoting stage.

However, further investigations are required to identify the active compounds and to demonstrate similar activity in in vivo experiments before an overall strategy can be formulated for the dietary control of malignancies. It differed from the wilt pathogen from tomato in that it failed to cause wilt symptoms on tomato, tobacco, or groundnuts. However, the pathogen was easily recovered from inoculation sites on these plants.

In Hawaii, a tomato strain had been reported which wilted tomato and peanut, but not ginger and tobacco; local tomato isolates caused wilt in all four species.

The possible occurrence locally of a weakly pathogenic ginger strain, as distinct from a highly virulent tomato strain was suggested. Wilt symptoms on ginger were described; and the dispersal and control of the wilt pathogen were discussed.

Among the plant extracts tested, the highest dose 25, ppm of ginger rhizome fresh extract gave the best result in reducing the PDI value as well as increasing the yield. All isolates, however, were highly virulent to potato and eggplant. Isolates obtained from diseased ginger plants were more virulent to ginger but less virulent to tomato than were isolates obtained from other hosts. All Philippine isolates were of low virulence to diploid banana; and they were race 1 despite the relatively low virulence of many isolates to tobacco.

Philippine isolates were of greater virulence to eggplant than was North Carolina isolate K race 1 or Colombia isolate race 3. Apparently plant resistance to the pathogen was not affected by this practice. Temperature was an important factor for wilt development in inoculated tobacco plants. Symptoms in Bottom Special tobacco plants were more affected by temperature changes than those in Reax tobacco plants.

Spices are defined as those aromatic plants and their parts, fresh or dried, whole or ground, that are primarily used to impart flavour and fragrance to foods and drinks.

The term is used in a wide sense and includes the culinary herbs. The volume complements the PROSEA volume 'Essential-oil plants' that deals with aromatic plants whose main use is for the extraction and use of essential oils. Spices are indispensable in the culinary art, used to create dishes that reflect the history, the culture and the geography of a country. Well-known examples are curry powder, houng-liu five-spice powder , pizza herbs and 'fines herbes'.

Spices, spice oils and spice oleoresins are also indispensable in the food and beverage manufacturing industry, the perfumery and cosmetic industry and the pharmaceutical industry. Some spices and derivatives possess antioxidant and antibiotic properties, which has increased interest in the commercial exploitation of aromatic plants for food preservation and crop protection. With the growing demand for natural and organic products and the increasing clamour to dispense with synthetic flavours and artificial food colouring, the future for spices seems bright.

In this volume, 61 important spices are treated in 50 papers, and 65 species of minor importance are described briefly. A further species, not primarily but secondarily used as a spice, are listed. The introductory chapter deals with general aspects of spices. A glossary is included to explain the terms used. Two indexes, of scientific and vernacular plant names, are provided. One of the results showed that some of the traditional herbs were used for healing fever.

Some of them had been examined using laboratory animal for antipyretic and hypothermic effects. Three hundred and three extracts from species of plants were tested against two-day-old adult oriental fruit flies using the mist spray at the rate of 1 g equivalent each. Extracts from plant parts which demonstrated moderately high to high toxicities were rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum, fruit skin of Annona squamosa, whole plant of Artemisia pallens, fruit of Croton tiglium, branches of Diospyros philippensis, whole plants of Euphorbia tirucalli, leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, leaves and branches of Pedilanthus tithymaloides, black seed of Piper nigrum, flowers of Tithonia diversifolia, grey rhizome of Zingiber officinale, and rhizome of 'changkhan' and 'phrataba'.

Moderate toxicity effect was observed from extracts of Areca catechu nuts, leaves and branches of Azadirachta indica var. Mild toxicity was detected from extracts of Acorus calamus rhizomes, bulbs of Allium sativum, leaves of Alstonia macrophylla, seeds of Amomum cardamomum, whole plant of Anethum graveolens, roots of Artemisia vulgaris, roots of Chrysanthemum coronarium, rhizomes of Curcuma comosa, leaves and flowers of Euphorbia pulcherrima, fruit skin of Garcinia mangostana, rhizomes of Gastrochilus panduratus, flowers of Gomphrena globosa, leaves and flowers of Jussiaea linifolia, leaves of Lactuca sativa, leaves of Piper betle, leaves of Paederia foetida, leaves and flowers of Sphaeranthus africanus, leaves of Stephania hernandifolia, and rhizomes of Thunbergia laurifolia.

Among unidentified plant species, rhizomes of 'khothongkae', 'khropchakkawan', 'phetma', 'plalai-yai', and 'sabu-thong' were under this catagory. Nine species find out growing in Bengkulu Forestry Grand Park: Achasma macrocheilos, Achama triorgyale, Amomum aculeatum, Amomum dealbatum, Amomum testaceum, Hornstedtia minor, Hornstedtia scyphus, Nicolaia speciosa, and Zingiber zerumbet, were in situ observed.

All of the flowers showed that many spikelets might be anthesized per spike per day and were terminally located on non-leafy "stem". Some stigmas observed were occupied by some pollens though pollinator was absent. In addition, stigma - anther distances were very near mm.

It was found that generative bio-reproduction was active and productive and autofertilization mechanism might be considered to occur within the species.

But in villages where such facilities are lacking, the "paraji's" or midwives have in important role in childbirth. To prevent mishaps during giving birth, Departemen of Health organizes trainings to increase their knowledge and skill inhelping delivery.

Gething help of a paraji is still a common practice of Pasir Eurih village, Ciomas, Bogor. Midwives usually use a mixture of some medicinal plants by rubbing them on the stomach of a pregnant woman. There are also herb mixtures to drink before childbirth.

The role and usage of each medicinal plant for childbirth are also discussed. The most efficient constituent was that of Andrographis paniculata, while those of Zingiber cassumunar, Melia azedarach, and Tinospora were lower in their efficiency.

Curcuma longa produced a volatile oil of curcumin, Zingiber cassumunar alpha-pinine, beta-pinine and salanine, Syzygium aromaticum syn. This survey was a result of an exploration by means of interview with local citizen and the assistance of local university students.

It was based upon the last two weeks headache cured with medicinal plant preparation. Conclusion of the survey showed that there were 17 kinds of plant used to alleviate headache, i. The medicinal plants, the recipes, and the way to use them were different in both provinces.

By planting homeyard with various food crops such as vegetables and fruits, families can have additional earnings. A study was carried out on the utilization of homeyard as a source of food for Kutai and Dayak Kenyah people in East Kalimantan. The results of field observation and interviewing local people showed that in Kutai 42 and in Dayak Kenyah 73 plant species were planted in homeyard.

The most common belonging to the plant families Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Musaceae, Solanaceae, and Zingiberaceae. Results showed that Pseudomonas solanacearum damaged the tested species at different levels. An experiment was conducted by planting Zingiber officinale, Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Kaempferia galanga under Acacia auriculiformis trees of 8 years old. Parameters observed were soil erosion, run off coefficient, CP value, production and economic value.

Result of research revealed that galangale Kaempferia galanga is the best for soil erosion control reducing erosion as much as The results indicated that under free choice condition the weevil feed on waterhyacinth and edible canna leaves.

However, waterhyacinth was much preferred than the edible canna leaves. Further survival test on edible canna plants indicated that the adult weevils may survive by feeding on canna plants.

However, the weevil will not undergo its complete life cycle on canna plants. Therefore, edible canna plants will only be temporary alternative host for adult weevil of Neochetina eichhorniae.

However, the role of the weevil in controlling waterhyacinth is still very low. The mortality of Callosobruchus chinensis was tested by contact and oral application to determine the LC value.

Through oral application, the value of LC of Zingiber officinale, Alpinia galanga, Kaempferia galanga and Curcuma longa extracts were Zingiber officinale extract was the stomach poison, its toxicity was the highest and could be applied orally. Curcuma longa extract could be applied by both oral and contact. From reports produced, there is evidence that antioxidant and antitumour promoting activities exist in several species of the genera Curcuma and Zingiber. This interesting discovery plus the availability of a good collection of species at PSGT, Universiti Putra Malaysia, prompted us to investigate the antioxidant and antitumour promoting activities from other genera.

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