His many epithets extol him as the overlord of numerous semi-divine species and the owner of the treasures of the world. Kubera is often depicted with a plump body, adorned with jewels, and carrying a money-pot and a club. Originally described as the chief of evil spirits in Vedic -era texts, Kubera acquired the status of a Deva god only in the Purana s and the Hindu epics. The scriptures describe that Kubera once ruled Lanka , but was overthrown by his demon half-brother Ravana , later settling in the city of Alaka in the Himalayas. Descriptions of the "glory" and "splendours" of Kubera's city are found in many scriptures. Kubera has also been assimilated into the Buddhist and Jain pantheons.
|Published (Last):||12 July 2007|
|PDF File Size:||8.8 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||11.84 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
His many epithets extol him as the overlord of numerous semi-divine species and the owner of the treasures of the world. Kubera is often depicted with a plump body, adorned with jewels, and carrying a money-pot and a club. Originally described as the chief of evil spirits in Vedic -era texts, Kubera acquired the status of a Deva god only in the Purana s and the Hindu epics.
The scriptures describe that Kubera once ruled Lanka , but was overthrown by his demon half-brother Ravana , later settling in the city of Alaka in the Himalayas. Descriptions of the "glory" and "splendours" of Kubera's city are found in many scriptures. Kubera has also been assimilated into the Buddhist and Jain pantheons.
Kubera is often depicted as a dwarf, with complexion of lotus leaves and a big belly. He is described as having three legs, only eight teeth, one eye, and being adorned with jewels.
He is sometimes depicted riding a man. In the Vishnudharmottara Purana , Kubera is described as the embodiment of both Artha "wealth, prosperity, glory" and Arthashastra s, the treatises related to it—and his iconography mirrors it. Kubera's complexion is described as that of lotus leaves.
He rides a man—the state personified, adorned in golden clothes and ornaments, symbolizing his wealth. His left eye is yellow. He wears an armour and a necklace down to his large belly. The Vishnudharmottara Purana further describes his face to be inclined to the left, sporting a beard and mustache, and with two small tusks protruding from the ends of his mouth, representing his powers to punish and to bestow favours.
His wife Riddhi, representing the journey of life, is seated on his left lap, with her left hand on the back of Kubera and the right holding a ratna-patra jewel-pot. Kubera should be four-armed, holding a gada mace: symbol of dandaniti —administration of justice and a shakti power in his left pair, and standards bearing a lion—representing Artha and a shibika a club, the weapon of Kubera. The nidhi treasures Padma and Shankha stand beside him in human form, with their heads emerging from a lotus and a conch respectively.
The Agni Purana states that Kubera should be installed in temples as seated on a goat, and with a club in his hand. The exact origins of the name Kubera are unknown. Kuvera is also split as ku earth , and vira hero. Parvati also turned this deformed eye yellow. So, Kubera gained the name Ekaksipingala "one who has one yellow eye".
Kubera usually is drawn by spirits or men nara , so is called Nara-vahana , one whose vahana mount is nara. Hopkins interprets nara s as being water-spirits, although Mani translates nara as men. Kubera also enjoys the titles "king of the whole world", "king of kings" Rajaraja , "Lord of wealth" Dhanadhipati and "giver of wealth" Dhanada. His titles are sometimes related to his subjects: "king of Yakshas " Yaksharajan , "Lord of Rakshasas " Rakshasadhipati , "Lord of Guhyakas " Guhyakadhipa , "king of Kinnaras " Kinnararaja , "king of animals resembling men" Mayuraja , and "king of men" Nararaja.
The Atharvaveda calls him the "god of hiding". In the Atharvaveda —where he first appears  —and the Shatapatha Brahmana , Kubera is the chief of evil spirits or spirits of darkness, and son of Vaishravana. Kubera is described as born from a cow. However, from the Purana s, he is described as the grandson of Pulastya and the son of Vishrava and his wife Ilavida or Ilivila or Devavarnini , daughter of the sage Bharadvaja or Trinabindu. By this time, though still described as an asura , Kubera is offered prayers at the end of all ritual sacrifices.
The early texts Gautama Dharmashastra and Apastamba describe him as a man. Only the Grihyasutra s of Shankhayana and Hiranyakesin call him a god, and suggest offerings of meat, sesame seeds and flowers to him. The Purana s and the epics Mahabharata and Ramayana grant Kubera unquestioned godhood.
He also becomes a Loka-pala "world protector" and guardian dik-pala of the North direction , although he is also sometimes associated with the East. Thus, Kubera is considered a later addition to the original list of Loka-pala s, where the gods Agni or Soma appear in his place. Brahma also conferred upon Kubera the riches of the world Nidhis , "equality with gods", and the Pushpaka Vimana , a flying chariot. Kubera then ruled in the golden city of Lanka , identified with modern-day Sri Lanka.
Both the Purana s and the Ramayana feature the half-blood siblings of Kubera. Vishrava, Kubera's father, also married the Rakshasa demon princess Kaikesi , who mothered four Rakshasa children: Ravana , the chief antagonist of the Ramayana, Kumbhakarna , Vibhishana and Soorpanaka. It records that when Kubera approached Brahma for the favour of superseding his father Pulastya, Pulastya created Vishrava. To seek the favour of Vishrava, Kubera sent three women to him, by whom Vishrava begot his demon children.
Kubera then settled on Gandhamandana mountain, near Mount Kailash — the abode of the god Shiva —in the Himalayas. Sometimes, Kailash itself is called Kubera's residence. His city is usually called Alaka or Alaka-puri "curl-city" , but also Prabha "splendour" , Vasudhara "bejeweled" and Vasu-sthali "abode of treasures". There is also a charming lake called Nalini in the grove. A description of Kubera's magnificent court appears in the Mahabharata as well as the Meghaduta.
Here, Gandharvas and Apsaras entertain Kubera. Shiva and his wife Parvati often frequent Kubera's court, which is attended by semi-divine beings like the Vidyadharas ; Kimpurushas ; Rakshasa s; Pishachas ; as well as Padma and Shankha; personified treasures nidhi ; and Manibhadra, Kubera's chief attendant and chief of his army. Like every world-protector, Kubera has seven seers of the North in residence. Alaka is recorded to be plundered by Ravana once, and attacked by the Pandava prince, Bhima once.
Shukra , the preceptor of the asuras, is also recorded to have defeated Kubera and stolen his wealth. Kubera is the treasurer of the gods and overlord of the semi-divine Yaksha s, the Guhyaka s, Kinnara s and Gandharva s, who act as his assistants and protectors of the jewels of the earth, as well as guardians of his city. Kubera is also the guardian of travelers and the giver of wealth to individuals, who please him.
The Rakshasa s also serve Kubera,  however, some cannibalistic Rakshasa s are described to have sided with Ravana in the battle against Kubera. He is invoked with Shiva at weddings and is described as Kameshvara "Lord of Kama — pleasure, desire etc. The Purana s and the Mahabharata record that Kubera married Bhadra "auspicious" , or Kauberi "wife of Kubera" , daughter of the demon Mura. She is also called Yakshi — a female Yaksha and Charvi "splendour".
They had three sons: Nalakubara "Reed-axle" , Manigriva "Bejewled-neck" or Varna-kavi "Colourful poet" , and Mayuraja "king of animals resembling men" ; and a daughter called Minakshi "fish-eyed". As the treasurer of the riches of the world, Kubera is prescribed to be worshipped. Kubera also credited money to the god Venkateshwara a form of the god Vishnu for his marriage with Padmavati.
In remembrance of this, the reason devotees go to Tirupati to donate money in Venkateshwara's Hundi "Donation pot" , is so that he can pay it back to Kubera. While Kubera still enjoys prayers as the god of wealth, his role is largely taken by the god of wisdom, fortune and obstacle-removal, Ganesha , with whom he is generally associated. Kubera is recognized outside India and Hinduism as well. Kubera is a popular figure in Buddhist as well as Jain mythology.
He is one of the Four Heavenly Kings , each associated with a cardinal direction. Getty comments, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between Pancika and Kubera. The Juni-Ten group of twelve deities were created by adding four deities to the older grouping of Happou-Ten, the eight guardians of the directions.
Bishamon rules over the north, like his Hindu counterpart Kubera. The Digambara sect of Jainism gives him six weapons and three heads; while the Svetambaras portray him with four to six arms, numerous choices of weapons, though his attributes, the money bag and citron fruit are consistent.
He may ride a man or an elephant. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Kubera disambiguation. Hindu god of wealth. Kubera at the San Antonio Museum of Art. Vishrava father Ilavida mother. Abhinav publications. Iconography of the Buddhist Sculpture of Orissa. Abhinav Publications. In Nagendra Kumar Singh ed. Encyclopaedia of Hinduism.
Anmol Publications PVT. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. The myths and gods of India. Gautam ed. India through the ages. Handbook of Hindu mythology. Retrieved 23 June Hindu Mythology, Vedic and Puranic.
Sacred texts archive. Pustak Mahal. September Encyclopaedia of Jainism. Hindu gods and goddesses in Japan. Vedams eBooks P Ltd.
Motilal Banarsidas. Hindu deities and texts. Asuras Rakshasas Yakshas Vahanas.
Shree Kuber Chalisa
With a unique loyalty program, the Hungama rewards you for predefined action on our platform. Accumulated coins can be redeemed to, Hungama subscriptions. You need to be a registered user to enjoy the benefits of Rewards Program. You are not authorised arena user. Please subscribe to Arena to play this content. Why Mobile Number?
Hindu Prayers App
No hassles, no frills, no worries now. Have a requirement? Get Best Price. Minimum Order Quantity 50 Pack s. View Complete Details.